A strep test is used to determine whether a person with a sore throat (pharyngitis) has a group A streptococcal infection.
If the results of the rapid test, which takes 10-20 minutes, are positive, further testing is not needed. If the rapid strep test is negative, a throat culture should be performed on children or adolescents to confirm the results and avoid missing infections that could lead to serious complications, such as rheumatic fever. A throat culture is more sensitive than the rapid strep test, but it may take 24-48 hours for results. According to 2012 guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), confirmatory testing on adults is not recommended since adults have lower rates of strep throat and far lower risk of complications than children.
Infectious mononucleosis (mono) is often called the kissing disease. The virus that causes mono is transmitted through saliva, so you can get it through kissing, but you can also be exposed through a cough or sneeze, or by sharing a glass or food utensils with someone who has mono. However, mononucleosis isn’t as contagious as some infections, such as the common cold.
You’re most likely to get mononucleosis with all the signs and symptoms if you’re an adolescent or young adult. Young children usually have few symptoms, and the infection often goes unrecognized.
If you have mononucleosis, it’s important to be careful of certain complications such as an enlarged spleen. Rest and adequate fluids are key to recovery.
Urinalysis is a test that evaluates a sample of your urine. Urinalysis is used to detect and assess a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infection, kidney disease and diabetes.
Urinalysis involves examining the appearance, concentration and content of urine. Abnormal urinalysis results may point to a disease or illness. For example, a urinary tract infection can make urine look cloudy instead of clear. Increased levels of protein in urine can be a sign of kidney disease.
Abnormal results of a urinalysis often require more testing and evaluation to uncover the source of the problem.
The Lipid Core Group focuses its research interest on clinical trials. These studies include a placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of oat and plant sterols-containing cereals to lower total and LDL cholesterol. In addition, clinical trials involving the new superstatins, including rosuvastatin, are underway. Furthermore, safety and efficacy of an apolipoprotein A analog, which would selectively raise the HDL cholesterol level, is being tested in human trials. We are also currently participating in a multicenter trial of the effect of Ezetimibe on homozygous sitosterolemia. Newer weight-reducing drugs are also being evaluated as part of multicenter trials. With the addition of new core members, we plan to expand our research interests into kinetic studies of lipid metabolism. Additionally, physiology-based studies on the effect of lipid-lowering by drugs and/or by LDL apheresis are either under way or being contrived to determine their effects of vascular endothelial function and nitric oxide production.
Testosterone is a hormone produced primarily in the testicles. Testosterone helps maintain men’s:
- Bone density
- Fat distribution
- Muscle strength and mass
- Facial and body hair
- Red blood cell production
- Sex drive
- Sperm production.
The promise of testosterone therapy may seem enticing, but there are a lot of misconceptions about what the treatment can and can’t do for you. As you get older, testosterone therapy may sound like the ultimate anti-aging formula.
Yet the health benefits of testosterone therapy for age-related decline in testosterone aren’t as clear as they may seem. Find out what’s known — and not known — about testosterone therapy for normal aging.
The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then to gauge how well you’re managing your diabetes. The A1C test goes by many other names, including glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1C and HbA1c.
The A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin — a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen — is coated with sugar (glycated). The higher your A1C level, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetes complications.
H. pylori infection occurs when a type of bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects your stomach. This usually happens during childhood. A common cause of peptic ulcers, H. pylori infection may be present in more than half the people in the world.
Most people don’t realize they have H. pylori infection, because they never get sick from it. If you develop signs and symptoms of a peptic ulcer, your doctor will probably test you for H. pylori infection, because it can be treated with antibiotics.